Grindelia squarrosa

(Pursh) Dunal

Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. 5: 50. 1819.

Illustrated
Basionym: Donia squarrosa Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept. 2: 559. 1813
Synonyms: Grindelia aphanactis Rydberg Grindelia nuda Alph. Wood Grindelia nuda var. aphanactis (Rydberg) G. L. Nesom Grindelia serrulata Grindelia squarrosa var. nuda (Alph. Wood) A. Gray Grindelia squarrosa var. serrulata (Rydberg) Steyermark
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 20. Treatment on page 429. Mentioned on page 426, 432, 433, 435.

Biennials, perennials, or subshrubs (perhaps flowering first-year, usually short-lived), (10–) 40–100 cm. Stems erect, usually whitish or stramineous, sometimes reddish or grayish, glabrous. Cauline leaf-blades oval, ovate, obovate, or oblong to spatulate, oblanceolate, lanceolate, or linear, (10–) 15–70 mm, lengths 2–5 (–10) times widths, bases ± clasping, margins usually crenate to serrate (teeth mostly 3–6+ per cm, rounded to obtuse, resin-tipped), rarely entire, apices obtuse to acute, faces glabrous, strongly gland-dotted. Heads usually in open to crowded, corymbiform arrays, rarely borne singly. Involucres broadly urceolate to hemispheric or globose, 6–11 × 8–20+ mm. Phyllaries in 5–6 series, reflexed to spreading or appressed, filiform or linear to lance-linear or lance-subulate, apices usually looped to hooked, sometimes recurved to nearly straight, subterete to subulate, moderately to strongly resinous. Ray-florets 0 or (12–) 24–36 (–40); laminae 8–14 mm. Cypselae whitish, stramineous, brown, or gray, 1.5–4.5 mm, apices smooth, coronate, or knobby, faces smooth, striate, or ± furrowed; pappi of 2–3 (–8), straight or contorted to curled, smooth or barbellulate to barbellate, subulate scales or setiform awns 2.5–5.5 mm, shorter than disc corollas. 2n = 12.


Phenology: Flowering Jul–Sep(–Oct).
Habitat: Disturbed sites, plains, hills, roadsides, along streams, sands, clays, and subalkaline soils
Elevation: (10–)200–2900 m

Distribution

V20-984-distribution-map.gif

Alta., B.C., Man., Ont., Que., Sask., Ariz., Ark., Calif., Colo., Conn., Del., D.C., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Mo., Mont., Nebr., Nev., N.H., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., N.Dak., Ohio, Okla., Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.Dak., Tex., Utah, Vt., Va., Wash., Wis., Wyo., Mexico (Chihuahua), in Asia (Ukraine)

Discussion

Grindelia squarrosa is probably native to the Great Plains and, perhaps, Rocky Mountain areas; it is widely introduced in other areas. Some plants are intermediate between it and G. hirsutula (i.e., between G. squarrosa and G. perennis, which has been treated as a variety of G. squarrosa). Plants of G. squarrosa with relatively narrow leaf blades (lengths mostly 5–8 times widths), mostly from the western part of the range of the species, have been treated as G. squarrosa var. serrulata. G. L. Nesom (1990i) and others have treated discoid plants included here in G. squarrosa as distinct (as G. aphanactis, G. nuda, and/or G. nuda vars. aphanactis and nuda); Nesom reported cypselae to be dimorphic in heads of radiate plants and monomorphic in discoid plants and noted that populations with discoid plants occur mostly south and west of populations with radiate plants. According to Nesom, plants of G. nuda with stems usually reddish (versus sometimes greenish), lengths of blades of mid-cauline leaves 4–10 (versus 1.5–4) times widths, and cypselae ± deeply furrowed (versus striate to shallowly furrowed) should be called G. nuda var. aphanactis.

Hybrids between Grindelia squarrosa (nuda) and G. arizonica have been recorded from Arizona and New Mexico.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Grindelia squarrosa"
not tailed +, rounded +  and obtuse +
resinous +
straight +
distinct +
subequal +
scarious +
usually triangular +  and linear +
usually deltate +  and lanceolate +
corymbiform +  and paniculiform +
indeterminate +  and determinate +
John L. Strother +  and Mark A. Wetter +
(Pursh) Dunal +
setiform +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.55 cm5.5 mm <br />0.0055 m <br />) +
decurrent +
Donia squarrosa +
compound +  and simple +
rugulose +  and muricate +
barbellulate +  and barbellate +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br />) +
oblong;spatulate oblanceolate lanceolate or linear +
spatulate +  and triangular lanceolate or linear +
yellow +  and orange +
beaked +, 2-ribbed +  and 5-ribbed +
gray +, brown +, stramineous +  and whitish +
3-4-angled +, compressed +, ellipsoid +  and obovoid +
fertile +  and bisexual +
fertile +  and bisexual +
Alta. +, B.C. +, Man. +, Ont. +, Que. +, Sask. +, Ariz. +, Ark. +, Calif. +, Colo. +, Conn. +, Del. +, D.C. +, Idaho +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Kans. +, Ky. +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Mo. +, Mont. +, Nebr. +, Nev. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Mex. +, N.Y. +, N.Dak. +, Ohio +, Okla. +, Oreg. +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.Dak. +, Tex. +, Utah +, Vt. +, Va. +, Wash. +, Wis. +, Wyo. +, Mexico (Chihuahua) +  and in Asia (Ukraine) +
(10–)200–2900 m +
gland-dotted +
rugose +  and scabridulous +
pistillate +, staminate +  and neuter +
winged +  and beaked +
dispersed +
Disturbed sites, plains, hills, roadsides, along streams, sands, clays, and subalkaline soils +
discoid +  and radiate +
indeterminate +
heterogamous +  and homogamous +
each +  and sessile +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (1.1 cm11 mm <br />0.011 m <br />) +
broadly urceolate;hemispheric or globose +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1.4 cm14 mm <br />0.014 m <br />) +
sessile +  and petiolate +
cauline +  and basal +
spreading;erect +
deltate +
crenate to serrate +  and crenate +
2-carpellate +
barbellulate +  and barbellate +
contorted to curled +  and straight +
Flowering Jul–Sep(–Oct). +
obscurely +  and 1-nerved +
reflexed +  and spreading or appressed +
lance-subulate +, lance-linear +  and filiform +
subequal +  and unequal +
Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. +
bearing subulate enations +, hairy +  and bristly +
convex;flat +
barbellulate +  and barbellate +
straight +
2 +  and 3 +
subulate +, contorted +  and curled +
exalbuminous +
Illustrated +
branched +  and simple +
1 (?) +  and 6 (?) +
resinous +
grayish +, reddish +, stramineous +  and whitish +
lanceolate +  and more or less deltate +
appendaged +  and truncate +
papillate +  and smooth +
Grindelia aphanactis +, Grindelia nuda +, Grindelia nuda var. aphanactis +, Grindelia serrulata +, Grindelia squarrosa var. nuda +  and Grindelia squarrosa var. serrulata +
Grindelia squarrosa +
Grindelia +
species +
ampliate +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (40 cm400 mm <br />0.4 m <br />) +
perennial +  and biennial +
40 cm400 mm <br />0.4 m <br /> (100 cm1,000 mm <br />1 m <br />) +