Euthamia caroliniana

(Linnaeus) Greene ex Porter & Britton

Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 5: 321. 1894.

Common names: Coastal plain goldentop
IllustratedEndemic
Basionym: Erigeron carolinianus Linnaeus Sp. Pl. 2: 863. 1753 (as carolinianum)
Synonyms: Euthamia galetorum Greene Euthamia media Greene Euthamia microcephala Greene Euthamia microphylla Greene Euthamia remota Greene Euthamia tenuifolia (Pursh) Nuttall Solidago lanceolata var. minor Michaux Solidago moseleyi Fernald Solidago tenuifolia Pursh Solidago tenuifolia var. pycnocephala Fernald
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 20. Treatment on page 98. Mentioned on page 99.

Perennials, 25–100 cm. Stems (branched distal to midstems) glabrous or glabrate, not glaucous. Leaves deflexed to erect; blades 1–5-nerved, linear, 24–70 × 1–3 mm (to 6 mm wide in some Maine and Nova Scotia populations), lengths 7.7–42.2 times widths, abruptly reduced distally, lax to firm-herbaceous, apices obtuse to long-acuminate, faces abundantly and prominently gland-dotted (34–86 dots per mm2), glabrous, glabrate, or scabro-hirtellous on midnerves. Heads pedunculate or glomerulate, usually in flat-topped or rounded arrays 10–40% of plant heights (often with multiple layers, proximal branches 0.5–1 times array heights). Involucres campanulate to turbinate, 3–4.7 (–5.3) mm. Phyllaries usually green-tipped, outer ovate, inner oblong-linear, apices obtuse to acute. Ray-florets 7–17 (–25). Disc-florets 3–22; corollas 3.3–4.8 mm. 2n = 18.


Phenology: Flowering Aug–Dec.
Habitat: Open, moist to wet, sandy soils, lake shores and dunes
Elevation: 0–100 m

Distribution

V20-191-distribution-map.gif

N.S., Ala., Conn., Del., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Miss., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Pa., R.I., S.C., Va., W.Va.

Discussion

J. L. Reveal (1991c) determined that the types of Erigeron carolinianus and Solidago tenuifolia are conspecific.

Southern forms of Euthamia caroliniana tend to have fewer florets per head and narrower, more widely spreading (or even reflexed) leaves. E. L. Greene (1902) named these geographic variants (e.g., E. microcephala, E. microphylla). Overlap occurs in all characters; taxa cannot be confidently separated.

Euthamia galetorum has been considered an endemic restricted to lake shores in Nova Scotia (H. A. Gleason and A. Cronquist 1991; D. J. Sieren 1981). It has been collected from Cape Cod, Massachusetts, and southwestern Maine. Intermediates with E. caroliniana occur, and E. galetorum plants represent the endpoint of a morphologic cline. Most characters used to distinguish the two taxa are environmentally plastic and may not be genetically distinctive.

D. J. Sieren (1981) considered Euthamia caroliniana to be restricted to the Atlantic coastal plain. It occurs disjunctly in the southern Great Lakes region. Sieren considered the disjunct populations conspecific with E. gymnospermoides. H. A. Gleason and A. Cronquist (1991) called them E. remota Greene, related to E. gymnospermoides. The short disc corollas and involucres, narrow leaves, and production of axillary fascicles in some populations show clear relationship to E. caroliniana, from which disjunct plants cannot be reliably separated.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"[" is not declared as a valid unit of measurement for this property."]" is not declared as a valid unit of measurement for this property.

... more about "Euthamia caroliniana"
not tailed +, rounded +  and obtuse +
distinct +
subequal +
scarious +
usually triangular +  and linear +
usually deltate +  and lanceolate +
paniculiform +  and corymbiform +
indeterminate +  and determinate +
Arthur Haines +
(Linnaeus) Greene ex Porter & Britton +
pale +  and stramineous +
decurrent +
Erigeron carolinianus +
2.4 cm24 mm <br />0.024 m <br /> (7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br />) +
linear;lanceolate +
reduced +
1mm;3mm +
rugulose +  and muricate +
Coastal plain goldentop +
not 2-lipped +  and actinomorphic +
0.33 cm3.3 mm <br />0.0033 m <br /> (0.48 cm4.8 mm <br />0.0048 m <br />) +
beaked +, 2-ribbed +  and 5-ribbed +
terete +, oblong +  and narrowly ellipsoid +
fertile +  and bisexual +
fertile +  and bisexual +
N.S. +, Ala. +, Conn. +, Del. +, Fla. +, Ga. +, Ill. +, Ind. +, La. +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Miss. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, Ohio +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.C. +, Va. +  and W.Va. +
0–100 m +
gland-dotted +
scabro-hirtellous +, glabrate +  and glabrous +
pistillate +, staminate +  and neuter +
winged +  and beaked +
dispersed +
Open, moist to wet, sandy soils, lake shores and dunes +
glomerulate +  and pedunculate +
in corymbiform or paniculiform arrays +  and singly +
indeterminate +
heterogamous +  and homogamous +
rounded +  and flat-topped +
each +  and sessile +
0.47 cm4.7 mm <br />0.0047 m <br /> (0.53 cm5.3 mm <br />0.0053 m <br />) +
campanulate;turbinate +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.47 cm4.7 mm <br />0.0047 m <br />) +
erect;ascending +
oblong-lanceolate +
cartilaginous +  and chartaceous +
2-carpellate +
persistent +
Flowering Aug–Dec. +
linear +  and ovate +
Mem. Torrey Bot. Club +
bearing subulate enations +, hairy +  and bristly +
concave;usually flat;conic +
exalbuminous +
Illustrated +  and Endemic +
branched +  and simple +
appendaged +  and truncate +
papillate +  and smooth +
Euthamia galetorum +, Euthamia media +, Euthamia microcephala +, Euthamia microphylla +, Euthamia remota +, Euthamia tenuifolia +, Solidago lanceolata var. minor +, Solidago moseleyi +, Solidago tenuifolia +  and Solidago tenuifolia var. pycnocephala +
Euthamia caroliniana +
Euthamia +
species +
tubular +
25 cm250 mm <br />0.25 m <br /> (100 cm1,000 mm <br />1 m <br />) +