Cynara cardunculus

Linnaeus

Sp. Pl. 2: 827. 1753.

Common names: Cardoon artichoke artichoke thistle
WeedyIntroducedIllustrated
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 19. Treatment on page 89.

Taproots fleshy. Stems glabrous to densely arachnoid-tomentose. Leaves: basal blades 30–200 cm, margins deeply 1–2-pinnately lobed or divided to nearly compound, lobes oblong to lanceolate, entire to coarsely toothed, teeth and lobes innocuous to prominently spine-tipped, spines 1–30 mm, often clustered along petiole and at base of lobes, abaxial faces densely gray or white-tomentose, adaxial faces thinly cobwebby-tomentose; cauline leaves often short-decurrent as spiny wings. Involucres often purplish tinged, 30–150 × 40–150 mm excluding spreading phyllary tips, constricted distally or not. Phyllaries lanceolate to broadly ovate, bases appressed, spreading apices obtuse to acute or acuminate, spineless or tipped with spines 1–9 mm or truncate, abruptly mucronate, and spineless or minutely spine-tipped. Corollas blue or purple (rarely white), 3–5 cm; styles long-exserted. Cypselae 4–8 mm; pappus bristles 2–4 cm.

Distribution

V19-40-distribution-map.gif

Introduced; Calif., Mediterranean region, Macaronesia

Discussion

Subspecies 2 (2 in the flora).

Cynara cardunculus is a species of considerable economic importance. The globe artichoke, formerly treated as C. scolymus, was included as a horticulturally derived form of C. cardunculus (A. Wiklund 1992). The artichoke and the cardoon, another horticultural race of C. cardunculus, have been cultivated for centuries–the former for edible phyllary bases and receptacles, and the latter for edible stems and leaf rachises. That species has a darker side, however. Wild type races (artichoke thistles) are invasive and tenacious weeds that have infested Mediterranean climate areas of California, South America, South Africa, and Australia. Wiklund recognized two subspecies of C. cardunculus: subsp. cardunculus includes the artichoke, cardoon, and various wild types; subsp. flavescens includes some of the most invasive weedy members of the species. It is not certain that all of the weedy artichoke thistles in California are members of the latter subspecies.

Selected References

None.

Key

1 Middle involucral bracts broadly obtuse, truncate or emarginate to long-acuminate, apices with or without very narrow yellowish margins, spineless or tipped with slender spines to 9 mm Cynara cardunculus subsp. cardunculus
1 Middle involucral bracts acute to short-acuminate, apices with yellowish margins 0.5–1 mm wide, tipped with stout spines to 2–5 mm Cynara cardunculus subsp. flavescens

"fine" is not a number.

... more about "Cynara cardunculus"
white-tomentose +
cobwebby-tomentose +
tomentose +  and glabrous +
fringed +  and long-sagittate +
spine-tipped +, spineless +  and tipped +
scarious +
racemiform +, paniculiform +  and corymbiform +
indeterminate +  and determinate +
David J. Keil +
Linnaeus +
30 cm300 mm <br />0.3 m <br /> (200 cm2,000 mm <br />2 m <br />) +
decurrent +
Asteraceae tribe Cynareae +
compound +  and simple +
with slender to very very stout marginal spines +, spineless +  and compound +
divided +  and lobed +
10-nerved or 20-nerved +  and rugose +
Cardoon +, artichoke +  and artichoke thistle +
actinomorphic +
purple +  and blue +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
flattened +, 4-angled +, less cylindric +  and obpyramidal +
fertile +  and bisexual +
Calif. +, Mediterranean region +  and Macaronesia +
pistillate +, staminate +  and neuter +
winged +  and beaked +
dispersed +
in few-headed , terminal , cymiform arrays +  and singly +
indeterminate +
arachnoid-tomentose +
each +  and sessile +
purplish tinged +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br />) +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br />) +
ovoid;hemispheric +
constricted +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br />) +
sessile +  and petiolate +
cauline +  and basal +
oblong +  and lanceolate entire +
innocuous +
truncate +  and entire +
divided +  and lobed +
slender to very +
lanceolate +  and broadly ovate +
2-carpellate +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
persistent +
papillate +  and smooth +
distinct +  and fused +
papillate +
concave;flat or convex +
exalbuminous +
Weedy +, Introduced +  and Illustrated +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br />) +
branched +  and simple +
appendaged +  and truncate +
long-exserted +
dilated +  and swollen +
enlarged +
Compositae +
Cynara cardunculus +
species +
cylindric +
expanded +
innocuous +
slender +
perennial +  and annual +
50 cm500 mm <br />0.5 m <br /> (250 cm2,500 mm <br />2.5 m <br />) +
tree +, vine +, shrub +  and subshrub +