Cynara

Linnaeus

Sp. Pl. 2: 827. 1753.

,

Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 359. 1754.

Etymology: Greek kynara, artichoke
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 19. Treatment on page 89. Mentioned on page 57, 58, 66, 67, 83.
 TaxonIllustrator 
FNA19 P04 Cynara cardunculus.jpegCynara cardunculus subsp. flavescens
Carduus acanthoides subsp. acanthoides
Cirsium discolor
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers

Annuals or perennials, 50–250 cm, herbage ± arachnoid-tomentose. Stems ± erect, simple or branched, (leafy), stout. Leaves basal and cauline; petiolate (basal and proximal cauline) or sessile (distal cauline); blade margins 1–3-pinnately lobed or divided, sometimes essentially compound, spineless or with slender to very stout marginal spines, cauline progressively smaller and less divided distally, distalmost bractlike, abaxial faces pilose to densely gray-tomentose, adaxial glabrous or thinly tomentose, sometimes glandular. Heads discoid, borne singly or in few-headed, terminal, cymiform arrays. Involucres hemispheric or ovoid, sometimes constricted distally, 5–15 cm diam. Phyllaries many in 5–8+ series, unequal; outer lanceolate to broadly ovate, leathery, margins entire, with appressed bases and spreading apical appendages, acute to broadly obtuse or truncate, spine-tipped or spineless; inner scarious. Receptacles concave to flat or convex, epaleate, densely long-bristly. Florets many; corollas white, blue, or purple, tubes very slender, throats abruptly expanded, cylindric, lobes linear; anther bases long-sagittate, fringed, apical appendages oblong; style-branches: fused portions long, cylindric, minutely papillate, distinct portions minute. Cypselae ± cylindric to obpyramidal, ± 4-angled, finely ribbed, sometimes ± flattened, glabrous, apices truncate, smooth, attachment scars basal; pappi falling in rings of many (white or brownish), stiff bristles in 3–7 series, connate at bases, plumose proximally, often merely barbed distally. x = 34.

Distribution

Introduced; Mediterranean region, Macaronesia, w Asia

Discussion

Species 8 (1 in the flora).

Lower Taxa

"fine" is not a number.

... more about "Cynara"
pilose +  and densely gray-tomentose +
tomentose +  and glabrous +
fringed +  and long-sagittate +
scarious +
racemiform +, paniculiform +  and corymbiform +
indeterminate +  and determinate +
David J. Keil +
Linnaeus +
decurrent +
Asteraceae tribe Cynareae +
compound +  and simple +
with slender to very very stout marginal spines +, spineless +  and compound +
divided +  and lobed +
10-nerved or 20-nerved +  and rugose +
actinomorphic +
purple +, blue +  and white +
flattened +, 4-angled +, less cylindric +  and obpyramidal +
fertile +  and bisexual +
Mediterranean region +, Macaronesia +  and w Asia +
Greek kynara, artichoke +
pistillate +, staminate +  and neuter +
winged +  and beaked +
dispersed +
in few-headed , terminal , cymiform arrays +  and singly +
indeterminate +
arachnoid-tomentose +
each +  and sessile +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br />) +
ovoid;hemispheric +
constricted +
sessile +  and petiolate +
cauline +  and basal +
deltate +, usually narrowly triangular +  and more or less linear +
spineless +  and spine-tipped +
truncate +  and entire +
acute +  and broadly obtuse +
slender to very +
lanceolate +  and broadly ovate +
2-carpellate +
persistent +
papillate +  and smooth +
distinct +  and fused +
papillate +
Sp. Pl. +  and Gen. Pl. ed. +
1753 +  and 1754 +
concave;flat or convex +
wiklund1992a +
exalbuminous +
branched +  and simple +
appendaged +  and truncate +
dilated +  and swollen +
enlarged +
Compositae +
Asteraceae tribe Cardueae +
cylindric +
expanded +
slender +
perennial +  and annual +
50 cm500 mm <br />0.5 m <br /> (250 cm2,500 mm <br />2.5 m <br />) +
tree +, vine +, shrub +  and subshrub +