Cotula

Linnaeus

Sp. Pl. 2: 891. 1753.

,

Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 380. 1754.

Etymology: Greek kotule, small cup
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 19. Treatment on page 543. Mentioned on page 52, 486, 544.
 TaxonIllustrator 
FNA19 P64 Cotula coronopifolia.jpegCotula coronopifolia
Soliva sessilis
Cota tinctoria
Yevonn Wilson-Ramsey
Yevonn Wilson-Ramsey
Yevonn Wilson-Ramsey

Annuals or perennials, 2–25 [–50+] cm (sometimes aromatic). Stems usually 1, erect or prostrate to decumbent or ascending (sometimes rooting at nodes), usually branched, glabrous or ± strigillose to villous (hairs mostly basifixed). Leaves usually mostly cauline [basal]; alternate [opposite]; petiolate or sessile; blades obovate or spatulate to lanceolate or linear, sometimes 1–3-pinnately [palmati-pinnately] lobed, ultimate margins entire or irregularly toothed, faces glabrous or ± strigillose to villous [lanate] (hairs mostly basifixed). Heads disciform [discoid or radiate], borne singly (peduncles sometimes dilated). Involucres broadly hemispheric to saucer-shaped, 3–12+ [–15+] mm diam. Phyllaries persistent, 13–30+ in 2–3+ series, margins and apices (colorless, light to dark-brown, or purplish) scarious. Receptacles flat to convex [conic], epaleate (sometimes ± covered with persistent stalks of florets). Ray-florets 0 [5–8+, pistillate, fertile; corollas white] (peripheral pistillate florets 8–80+ in 1–3+ series; corollas usually none). Disc-florets 12–200+ [–600+], bisexual, fertile [functionally staminate]; corollas ochroleucous or yellow, tubes ± cylindric (bases sometimes adaxially saccate), throats abruptly ampliate, lobes (3–) 4, ± deltate (sometimes one larger than others, usually each with central resin canal). Cypselae obovoid to oblong, obcompressed or flattened, ribs 2, lateral, sometimes becoming wings, faces ± papillate (pericarps relatively thin, sometimes with myxogenic cells and/or 2 lateral resin sacs); pappi 0. x = 10.

Distribution

Introduced; s Old World, also (perhaps some native) in Mexico, South America, s Oceanic Islands

Discussion

Species 55 (2 in the flora).

Some species of Cotula are widely naturalized. F. Hrusa et al. (2002) reported Cotula mexicana (de Candolle) Cabrera as established on golf courses in California; it is similar to C. australis and differs in leaf blades mostly 1-pinnate, receptacles pilose, and disc florets functionally staminate.

Selected References

None.

Key

1 Annuals (± villous); leaf blades 2–3-pinnately lobed; involucres 3–4(–6) mm diam.; pistillate florets 8–40(–80+) in ± 1–3+ series Cotula australis
1 Perennials (glabrous); leaf blades entire or irregularly toothed or lobed; involucres 6–9 (–12+) mm diam.; pistillate florets 12–40+ in 1 series Cotula coronopifolia
... more about "Cotula"
not tailed +  and obtuse +
scarious +
spiciform +, racemiform +, paniculiform +  and corymbiform +
indeterminate +  and determinate +
Linda E. Watson +
Linnaeus +
decurrent +
compound +  and simple +
lobed;spatulate;lanceolate or linear +
zygomorphic +, actinomorphic +  and (3-)5-merous +
yellow +  and ochroleucous +
winged +  and monomorphic +
obovoid +  and oblong obcompressed or flattened +
fertile +  and bisexual +
fertile +  and bisexual +
s Old World +, also (perhaps some native) in Mexico +, South America +  and s Oceanic Islands +
Greek kotule, small cup +
more or less strigillose +  and villous +
papillate +
pistillate +, staminate +  and neuter +
winged +  and beaked +
dispersed +
indeterminate +
heterogamous +  and homogamous +
each +  and sessile +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
broadly hemispheric;saucer-shaped +
sessile +  and petiolate +
deltate +
entire +  and dentate +
2-carpellate +
persistent +
13 +  and 30 +
subequal +  and unequal +
Sp. Pl. +  and Gen. Pl. ed. +
1753 +  and 1754 +
styliferous +, neuter +  and pistillate +
sterile +  and fertile +
bearing subulate enations +, hairy +  and bristly +
flat;convex +
exalbuminous +
ascending +, decumbent +  and erect +
appendaged +  and truncate +
papillate +
Compositae +
Asteraceae tribe Anthemideae +
ampliate +
cylindric +
toothed +  and entire +
25 cm250 mm <br />0.25 m <br /> (50 cm500 mm <br />0.5 m <br />) +
perennial +  and annual +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (25 cm250 mm <br />0.25 m <br />) +
shrub +  and subshrub +