Coreopsis

Linnaeus

Sp. Pl. 2: 907. 1753.

,

Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 388. 1754.

Etymology: Greek korios, bedbug, and -opsis, resembling, alluding to cypselae of original species
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 21. Treatment on page 185. Mentioned on page 51, 184.
 TaxonIllustrator 
FNA21 P29 Dimeresia howelii.jpegDimeresia howellii
Coreopsis californica
Coreopsis tripteris
Marjorie C. Leggitt
Yevonn Wilson-Ramsey
Yevonn Wilson-Ramsey
FNA21 P30 Coreopsis lanceolata.jpegCoreopsis lanceolata
Coreopsis gladiata
Coreopsis tinctoria
Yevonn Wilson-Ramsey
Yevonn Wilson-Ramsey
Yevonn Wilson-Ramsey

Annuals, perennials, subshrubs, or shrubs, 10–80 (–200+) cm (often rhizomatous or with cormiform bases, stoloniferous in C. auriculata). Stems usually 1, erect, branched distally or ± throughout. Leaves basal, basal and cauline, or cauline; opposite or alternate or both; petiolate or sessile; blades simple and entire (dentate in C. latifolia), or ± pinnately or pedately lobed, faces glabrous or hairy. Heads radiate, borne singly or in open, ± corymbiform arrays. Calyculi of (3–) 8+, distinct, ± herbaceous bractlets. Involucres ± globose to cylindric, 4–25+ mm diam. Phyllaries usually ± 8 in ± 2 series (usually distinct, rarely connate ± 1/10 their lengths, mostly oblong to linear, ± membranous, margins ± scarious). Receptacles flat to convex, paleate; paleae falling, ovate to linear or subulate, ± flat, ± scarious (not adnate to and not falling with cypselae except in C. bigelovii). Ray-florets mostly (5–) 8 (–12+, more in “double” cultivars), neuter, or styliferous and sterile, or pistillate and fertile; corollas usually yellow, sometimes redbrown to purple proximally, sometimes wholly purple or pink to white. Disc-florets 8–150+, bisexual, fertile; corollas usually yellow, sometimes redbrown to purple at tips or throughout, tubes equaling or shorter than narrowly funnelform throats, lobes 4 or 5 (adaxial sinus seldom deeper than others). Cypselae obcompressed, ± orbiculate to ovate, oblong, or linear, usually thin-margined or winged, wings membranous to chartaceous or corky, entire or lobed to toothed, sometimes ciliolate; faces smooth or ± papillate to tuberculate; pappi 0, or persistent, of 2 bristly cusps or scales (sometimes pappi 0 and shoulders of cypsela wings ± bristly, pappuslike). x = 14.

Distribution

Mostly temperate North America, also tropical New World and Old World. Early leaves of some coreopsises often differ from later leaves on individual plants

Discussion

Species ca. 35 (28 in the flora).

Early leaves of some coreopsises often differ from later leaves on individual plants. In such plants, early (proximal) leaves may be 1–3-pinnately or pedately lobed and 12–25+ cm long with 9–15+ orbiculate to lanceolate, linear, or filiform lobes and contrast markedly with later (distal) leaves 1–3 cm that are undivided or have 3–5+ lanceolate to linear or filiform lobes.

Cultivars (often “doubles” with multiple series of “ray” florets) derived from Coreopsis auriculata, C. grandiflora, C. lanceolata, and C. tinctoria are grown in public and residential gardens and are grown commercially for cut flowers.

Key

1 Ray florets usually pistillate and fertile, sometimes styliferous and sterile > 2
1 Ray florets neuter (without styles) > 4
2 Perennials, subshrubs, or shrubs; ray laminae ± elliptic to oblong, broadest at or near middles Coreopsis sect. Tuckermannia
2 Annuals; ray laminae obovate to ± flabellate, broadest distal to middles > 3
3 Cypselae of disc florets ciliolate; pappi of 2 lanceolate to subulate scales Coreopsis sect. Pugiopappus
3 Cypselae of disc florets not ciliolate; pappi 0 or coroniform (0.1–0.2 mm) Coreopsis sect. Leptosyne
4 Leaf blades usually not lobed, rarely with 1–2 auricles at bases (margins dentate); rayflorets 4–5; disc florets 10–15+ Coreopsis sect. Silphidium
4 Leaf blades sometimes lobed (ultimate margins not dentate); ray florets (5–)8(–13; more in "double" cultivars); disc florets 30–150+ > 5
5 Disc corolla lobes 5; style-branch apices usually ± penicillate, sometimes short-conic or truncate-mucronate > 6
5 Disc corolla lobes 4; style-branch apices ± truncate > 7
6 Ray laminae ± oblong-elliptic to suborbiculate, broadest at or near middles; paleae usually linear to subulate, often distally dilated Coreopsis sect. Gyrophyllum
6 Ray laminae ± cuneate, broadest distal to middles; paleae basally ± lanceolate to linear, distally attenuate (± filiform) Coreopsis sect. Coreopsis
7 Leaf blades sometimes with 1–2 lateral lobes; cypselae sometimes winged, wings ± pectinate or toothed Coreopsis sect. Eublepharis
7 Leaf blades usually 1–2(–3)-pinnately lobed; cypselae sometimes winged, wingsentire Coreopsis sect. Calliopsis

"broader" is not a number.

... more about "Coreopsis"
not tailed +, rounded +  and obtuse +
dark +  and pale +
connate +  and distinct +
subequal +
scarious +
usually ovate +  and lanceolate +
usually deltate +  and lanceolate +
paniculiform +, cymiform +  and corymbiform +
indeterminate +  and determinate +
John L. Strother +
Linnaeus +
smooth +  and ciliate or barbed +
1 +  and 2 +
decurrent +
winged;ribbed;winged;ribbed +
tuberculate +  and rugose +
barbellulate +  and barbellate +
redbrown +  and purple +
winged +  and thin-margined +
less orbiculate +  and ovate oblong or linear +
fertile +  and bisexual +
fertile +  and bisexual +
Mostly temperate North America +  and also tropical New World and Old World. Early leaves of some coreopsises often differ from later leaves on individual plants +
Greek korios, bedbug, and -opsis, resembling, alluding to cypselae of original species +
hairy +  and glabrous +
more or less papillate +  and tuberculate +
linear-fusiform;4-angled;ovate;orbiculate;oblong;linear;cuneate +
pistillate +, staminate +  and neuter +
winged +  and beaked +
dispersed +
discoid +  and radiate +
in open , more or less corymbiform arrays +  and singly +
indeterminate +
homogamous +  and heterogamous +
each +  and sessile +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
less globose;cylindric +
sessile +  and petiolate +
both +, alternate +  and opposite +
cauline +  and basal +
less deltate +  and lanceovate +
dentate to pinnatifid or palmatifid +  and entire +
2-carpellate +
ovate;linear or subulate +
persistent +
of 1-2 , smooth to ciliate or barbed awns or scales +  and coroniform +
Sp. Pl. +  and Gen. Pl. ed. +
1753 +  and 1754 +
pistillate +, styliferous +  and neuter +
fertile +  and sterile +
bearing subulate enations +, hairy +  and bristly +
flat;convex +
jansen1987a +, smith1976b +  and smith1984a +
exalbuminous +
appendaged +  and truncate +
hirsutulous +  and glabrous +
papillate +
Undefined (tribe Undefined) subtribe Coreopsideae +  and Undefined (tribe Undefined) subtribe Petrobiinae +
Coreopsis +
Asteraceae (tribe Heliantheae) subtribe Coreopsidinae +
toothed +  and entire +
perennial +  and annual +
shrub +  and subshrub +
corky +  and chartaceous +
lobed +  and toothed +
membranous +