Cichorium

Linnaeus

Sp. Pl. 2: 813. 1753.

,

Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 354. 1754.

Etymology: Ancient Arabic name
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 19. Treatment on page 221. Mentioned on page 218.
 TaxonIllustrator 
FNA19 P17 Scolymus hispanicus.jpegScolymus hispanicus
Cichorium intybus
Crepis acuminata
Marjorie C. Leggitt
Barbara Alongi
Bee F. Gunn

Perennials [annuals, biennials], [2–] 10–120+ cm; taprooted. Stems usually 1, erect, branched distally or throughout, setose or hispid to pilose, or glabrous. Leaves basal and cauline; usually sessile; basal blades oblanceolate to lance-linear, margins usually runcinate-pinnate to dentate, rarely entire; cauline similar, smaller, margins dentate or entire. Heads mostly in glomerules (axillary and nearly sessile), some borne singly (on ± elongate peduncles). Peduncles (dimorphic: most 0–2 mm, some 12–85+ mm): the longer often slightly inflated distally, not bracteate. Calyculi 0 (or interpreted as outer phyllaries). Involucres ± cylindric, 3–5+ mm diam. Phyllaries 10–15+ in 2+ series, lanceovate to lanceolate or linear, unequal, margins little, if at all, scarious, apices obtuse to acute. Receptacles flat, pitted, ± hispid, usually epaleate. Florets 8–25+; corollas usually blue [purple], sometimes pink or white. Cypselae brownish, ± prismatic (3–5-angled), not beaked, faces smooth, glabrous; pappi persistent, coroniform (of 40–60+, whitish, subequal, erose scales in 1–2 series). x = 9.

Distribution

Introduced; Europe, n Africa, Asia, also in South America, Africa, Pacific Old World

Discussion

Species 6 (1 in the flora).

The salad green known as endive (Cichorium endivia Linnaeus) may sometimes be found as an escape from gardens or agricultural plantings. It differs from C. intybus in having purple corollas, cypselae 1.5–2.5 mm, and pappi 0.6–1+ mm.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

"fine" is not a number.

... more about "Cichorium"
scarious +
ovate +  and lanceolate +
paniculiform +  and corymbiform +
indeterminate +  and determinate +
John L. Strother +
Linnaeus +
oblanceolate +  and lance-linear +
decurrent +
compound +  and simple +
tuberculate +, rugose +, muricate +  and smooth +
filiform +
zygomorphic +, actinomorphic +  and (3-)5-merous +
white +, pink +  and blue +
prismatic +
Europe +, n Africa +, Asia +, also in South America +, Africa +  and Pacific Old World +
Ancient Arabic name +
winged +  and beaked +
dispersed +
indeterminate +
each +  and sessile +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
cauline +  and basal +
entire +, dentate +  and usually runcinate-pinnate +
divided +, lobed +  and dentate +
2-carpellate +
persistent +
coroniform +
connate +  and distinct +
10 +  and 15 +
Sp. Pl. +  and Gen. Pl. ed. +
1753 +  and 1754 +
flat;convex +
exalbuminous +
appendaged +  and truncate +
papillate +
Undefined tribe Lactuceae +
Cichorium +
Asteraceae tribe Cichorieae +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br />) +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (120 cm1,200 mm <br />1.2 m <br />) +
shrub +  and subshrub +