Phytologia 20: 202. 1970.
Perennials or subshrubs, 50–150 cm. Stems erect, hispidulous to coarsely short-pilose. Petioles 0 or 0.5–1 (–3) mm. Leaf-blades linear-lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate, 1.5–7 × 0.4–1.2 cm, margins denticulate to subentire. Heads usually 5–50+ in (terminal or lateral) corymbiform arrays. Involucres cylindric to campanulate, 5–6 mm. Phyllaries in (3–) 4–5 series, apices of the inner ± spreading (pinkish purple, hyaline, petaloid, slightly expanded, truncate). Corollas light blue to purplish or reddish. 2n = 50.
Phenology: Flowering Aug–Nov.
Habitat: Open woods, edges of fields and woods, roadsides, fencerows, ditches, other disturbed sites, flood plains, bottomlands, along streams
Elevation: 0–50 m
Fla., La., Miss., Tex., Mexico, West Indies, Central America, South America
"fine" is not a number.