Carthamus

Linnaeus

Sp. Pl. 2: 830. 1753.

,

Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 361. 1754.

Common names: Distaff thistle
Etymology: Arabic qartam, safflower
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 19. Treatment on page 178. Mentioned on page 52, 67, 83.
 TaxonIllustrator 
FNA19 P11 Crupina vulgaris.jpegCrupina vulgaris
Carthamus lanatus
John Myers
John Myers

Annuals or perennials, 30–180 cm, herbage glabrous to ± glandular and/or ± tomentose. Stems usually erect, branched distally or throughout, (leafy). Leaves basal and cauline or all cauline; basal and proximal cauline winged-petiolate, distal cauline sessile, sometimes clasping; blade margins dentate to pinnately lobed, ± spiny, faces glabrous or ± glandlar and/or ± tomentose. Heads discoid, borne singly or in few-headed cymiform arrays. Involucres ovoid, constricted distally. Phyllaries many in 4–5 series, linear to ovate (at least outer ± leaflike), bases appressed, apical appendages more herbaceous, prominently veiny, spiny-dentate or lobed, spine-tipped. Receptacles convex to conic, epaleate, bearing subulate scales. Florets 15–60+; corollas yellow to red or ± purple, tubes very slender, throats gradually or abruptly expanded, ± cylindric or short-campanulate, lobes linear; anther bases short-tailed, apical appendages oblong; style-branches: fused portions with slightly swollen basal nodes minutely hairy, distally minutely papillate, distinct portions very short. Cypselae oblong to obpyramidal, ± 4-angled, apices with smooth or dentate rims, faces usually ± roughened (outer) or smooth (inner), glabrous, attachment scars lateral; pappi 0 or (usually only inner cypselae) ± persistent, of many, usually unequal, narrow scales overlapping in several series. x = 10, 12.

Distribution

Introduced; United States, Mediterranean region

Discussion

Species 14 (4 in the flora).

Key

1 Corollas pink or pale purple; cauline leaves ± deeply lobed Carthamus leucocaulos
1 Corollas yellow to red; cauline leaves toothed to deeply lobed > 2
2 Cauline leaves toothed, otherwise undivided, weakly spiny; corollas yellow to red; cypselae white Carthamus tinctorius
2 Cauline leaves ± divided, very spiny; corollas yellow; cypselae brown > 3
3 Anthers yellow, pollen yellow; corollas bright yellow; outer phyllaries usually not more than 1.5 times as long as inner; herbage ± cobwebby; stems stramineous. Carthamus lanatus
3 Anthers white with purple lines, pollen white; corollas pale yellow; outer phyllaries usually 2 times as long as inner; herbage ± sparsely hairy; stems white or stramineous Carthamus creticus

"fine" is not a number.

... more about "Carthamus"
short-tailed +
scarious +
oblong +, lobed +  and spiny-dentate +
indeterminate +  and determinate +
David J. Keil +
Linnaeus +
decurrent +
Asteraceae tribe Cynareae +
compound +  and simple +
dentate +  and pinnately lobed +
10-nerved or 20-nerved +  and rugose +
Distaff thistle +
actinomorphic +
yellow +  and red or more or less purple +
4-angled +, oblong +  and obpyramidal +
fertile +  and bisexual +
United States +  and Mediterranean region +
Arabic qartam, safflower +
glabrous +, tomentose +  and more or less +
pistillate +, staminate +  and neuter +
winged +  and beaked +
dispersed +
in few-headed cymiform arrays +  and singly +
indeterminate +
glabrous +  and more or less glandular and/or more or less tomentose +
each +  and sessile +
constricted +
sessile +  and petiolate +
cauline +, all +  and basal +
deltate +, usually narrowly triangular +  and more or less linear +
entire +  and dentate +
usually lobed +  and dissected +
2-carpellate +
persistent +
papillate +  and smooth +
distinct +  and fused +
papillate +
Sp. Pl. +  and Gen. Pl. ed. +
1753 +  and 1754 +
bearing subulate enations +, hairy +  and bristly +
convex;conic +
ashri1959a +, ashri1960a +, hanelt1963a +, hanelt1976a +, khidir1970a +  and khidir1970b +
dentate +  and smooth +
overlapping +
subulate +
unequal +
exalbuminous +
several;4;5 +
appendaged +  and truncate +
dilated +  and swollen +
enlarged +
Compositae +
Carthamus +
Asteraceae tribe Cardueae +
short-campanulate +  and cylindric +
expanded +
slender +
perennial +  and annual +
30 cm300 mm <br />0.3 m <br /> (180 cm1,800 mm <br />1.8 m <br />) +
tree +, vine +, shrub +  and subshrub +