Balsamorhiza hookeri

Nuttall

Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., n. s. 7: 349. 1840.

Endemic
Basionym: Heliopsis balsamorhiza Hooker Fl. Bor.-Amer. 1: 310. 1833
Synonyms: Balsamorhiza hirsuta Nuttall Balsamorhiza hirsuta var. lagocephala W. M. Sharp Balsamorhiza hirsuta var. neglecta W. M. Sharp Balsamorhiza hookeri var. hirsuta (Nuttall) A. Nelson Balsamorhiza hookeri var. lagocephala (W. M. Sharp) Cronquist Balsamorhiza hookeri var. neglecta (W. M. Sharp) Cronquist Balsamorhiza macrolepis var. platylepis (W. M. Sharp) Ferris Balsamorhiza platylepis
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 21. Treatment on page 98. Mentioned on page 93, 94, 95.

Plants 10–30 cm. Basal leaves: blades usually gray-green, narrowly to broadly lanceolate or ovate, (8–) 20–30 (–40) × 2–15 cm (1–2-pinnatifid, primary lobes oblong or lanceolate to linear, 5–100 × 0.5–15 mm, secondary lobes usually ± linear, spreading), bases ± truncate to broadly cuneate, ultimate margins usually entire (plane or revolute, ciliate or not), apices obtuse to acute, faces hirsute, sericeous, or strigose (and glanddotted or finely stipitate-glandular). Heads borne singly. Involucres campanulate to hemispheric, 15–30 mm diam. Outer phyllaries ovatelanceolate to lanceolate, 10–24+ mm, seldom surpassing inner, apices acuminate to attenuate (margins usually ciliate). Ray laminae 15–30 (–45) mm. 2n = 38.


Phenology: Flowering Apr–May(–Jul).
Habitat: Rocky outcrops, dry meadows, sagebrush scrublands, basalt scablands (north), dry, open forests (south)
Elevation: (300–)1000–1500(–2900) m

Distribution

V21-231-distribution-map.gif

Calif., Nev., Oreg., Wash.

Discussion

At one time or another, most species of subg. Balsamorhiza have been synonymized under B. hookeri. Nevertheless, a number of taxa are justifiably segregated as species by their morphologic differences and geographic restrictions. One might logically choose either of two taxonomies: recognizing only two species in the entire genus, one representing subg. Artorhiza and the other subg. Balsamorhiza, or recognizing each slightly differing population as a species. Either course results in an unsatisfactory classification. The present classification is a compromise. A knotty problem persists. A central cluster of populations from eastern Washington to southeastern California display a number of minor and locally discrete morphologies. They tend to be less isolated from each other than are the peripheral populations, although some tend to mimic the latter ones in one or more characteristics. Their evolutionary history may be involved with past hybridizations with each other or with species of subg. Artorhiza, gene drift, and polyploidy. At present, it appears impossible to reach a satisfactory classification.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"broader" is not a number.

... more about "Balsamorhiza hookeri"
not tailed +, rounded +  and obtuse +
connate +  and distinct +
subequal +
scarious +
usually ovate +  and lanceolate +
usually deltate +  and lanceolate +
less corymbiform +  and racemiform +
indeterminate +  and determinate +
William A. Weber +
Nuttall +
bristlelike +
coroniform +
not corrugated +
less truncate +  and broadly cuneate +
Heliopsis balsamorhiza +
compound +  and simple +
30 cm300 mm <br />0.3 m <br /> (40 cm400 mm <br />0.4 m <br />) +
20 cm200 mm <br />0.2 m <br /> (30 cm300 mm <br />0.3 m <br />) +
ovate;lanceolate +
2cm;15cm +
winged;ribbed;winged;ribbed +
tuberculate +  and rugose +
barbellulate +  and barbellate +
yellow +  and orange +
hairy +  and glabrous +
3-4-angled +  and prismatic +
fertile +  and bisexual +
fertile +  and bisexual +
Calif. +, Nev. +, Oreg. +  and Wash. +
(300–)1000–1500(–2900) m +
strigose +, sericeous +  and hirsute +
pistillate +, staminate +  and neuter +
winged +  and beaked +
dispersed +
Rocky outcrops, dry meadows, sagebrush scrublands, basalt scablands (north), dry, open forests (south) +
indeterminate +
homogamous +  and heterogamous +
each +  and sessile +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
campanulate;hemispheric +
alternate +  and opposite +
deltate +
entire +, serrate +  and dentate +
crenate +  and entire +
ovatelanceolate +  and lanceolate +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (2.4 cm24 mm <br />0.024 m <br />) +
2-carpellate +
persistent +
Flowering Apr–May(–Jul). +
8 +  and 20 +
unequal +  and subequal +
Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., n. s. +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (4.5 cm45 mm <br />0.045 m <br />) +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
bearing subulate enations +, hairy +  and bristly +
flat;convex +
exalbuminous +
appendaged +  and truncate +
hirsutulous +  and glabrous +
papillate +
Balsamorhiza hirsuta +, Balsamorhiza hirsuta var. lagocephala +, Balsamorhiza hirsuta var. neglecta +, Balsamorhiza hookeri var. hirsuta +, Balsamorhiza hookeri var. lagocephala +, Balsamorhiza hookeri var. neglecta +, Balsamorhiza macrolepis var. platylepis +  and Balsamorhiza platylepis +
Balsamorhiza hookeri +
Balsamorhiza subg. Balsamorhiza +
species +
cylindric +
cylindric +
shorter to longer than campanulate +
45 cm450 mm <br />0.45 m <br /> (100 cm1,000 mm <br />1 m <br />) +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (45 cm450 mm <br />0.45 m <br />) +