Hooker ex Nuttall

Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., n. s. 7: 349. 1840.

Common names: Balsamroot
Etymology: Greek balsamon, a fragrant gum, and rhiza, root alluding to resiniferous rootstocks
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 21. Treatment on page 93. Mentioned on page 65, 95, 100.
FNA21 P13 Echinacea pallida.jpegEchinacea pallida
Echinacea purpurea
Balsamorhiza sagittata
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
FNA21 P14 Balsamorhiza rosea.jpegBalsamorhiza rosea
Scabrethia scabra subsp. scabra
Wyethia mollis
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers

Perennials, 10–45 (–100) cm (taproots slender or massive, thick or thin-barked; caudices unbranched or multibranched). Stems erect, branched mostly from bases. Leaves mostly basal; opposite or alternate; petiolate (bases persisting as fibrils); blades (mostly pinnately nerved, sometimes 3-nerved or 5-nerved) either rounded-deltate to triangular-deltate with bases sagittate or cordate to truncate and margins entire or crenate (B. subg. Artorhiza), or blades mostly elliptic, ovate, or lanceolate to lanceovate or oblong and often 1–2-pinnatifid or pinnately lobed with bases mostly truncate to cuneate and (if not lobed) margins usually crenate, dentate, or serrate, seldom entire (B. subg. Balsamorhiza), faces usually hirsute, hispid, pilose, puberulent, scabrous, sericeous, strigose, tomentose, or velutinous and glanddotted or stipitate-glandular, seldom glabrous. Heads radiate, usually borne singly, rarely (2–3+) in ± corymbiform to racemiform arrays (peduncles ± scapiform, usually bearing 2+ leaves or bracts proximally or at mid length). Involucres mostly campanulate or turbinate to hemispheric, 11–30+ mm diam. Phyllaries persistent, 8–20+ in 2–3+ series (subequal to unequal, outer equaling or surpassing inner). Receptacles flat to convex, paleate (paleae persistent, conduplicate, at least at bases, chartaceous). Ray-florets 5–21+, pistillate, fertile; corollas usually yellow to orange, rarely becoming brick-red (B. rosea). Disc-florets (15–) 50–150+, bisexual, fertile; corollas yellow to orange, tubes much shorter than cylindric throats, lobes 5, ± deltate (style-branches stigmatic in 2 barely distinct lines, appendages filiform). Cypselae obscurely prismatic, weakly 3–4-angled (faces usually glabrous, strigose in some B. careyana and in B. rosea); pappi 0. x = 19.


w North America


Species 12 (12 in the flora).

Balsamorhiza ×bonseri H. St. John refers to a hybrid derivative involving B. sagittata and B. rosea. The plants have the habit of B. sagittata and the reddish ray corollas of B. rosea. The cypselae are hairy.

Balsamorhiza ×terebinthacea (Hooker) Nuttall and B. macrophylla var. terebinthacea (Hooker) A. Nelson refer to hybrids derived from B. hookeri × B. deltoidea.

In the key and descriptions here, “leaves” refers to basal leaves and “leaf blades” refers to blades of basal leaves, unless otherwise indicated.


1 Leaves (petioles mostly longer than blades): blades rounded-deltate or deltate to triangular-deltate, bases sagittate or cordate to truncate, margins usually entire, sometimes crenate to dentate (subg. Artorhiza) > 2
1 Leaves (petioles mostly shorter than blades): blades mostly lanceolate, lance-elliptic, lance-ovate, linear-oblong, oblong, or ovate, often 1–2-pinnatifid or -pinnately lobed, bases usually truncate to cuneate, sometimes cordate, ultimate margins usually crenate, dentate, or serrate, seldom entire (subg. Balsamorhiza) > 4
2 Heads usually borne singly, sometimes 2–3+; leaves ± silvery to white, faces (at least the abaxial) sericeous, tomentose, tomentulose, or velutinous Balsamorhiza sagittata
2 Heads 2–3+ or borne singly; leaves green, faces glabrous or finely hispidulous to hirtellous > 3
3 Heads usually (2–)3+, sometimes borne singly; leaf margins usually entire, sometimes crenate (to dentate near bases), faces usually finely hispidulous to hirtellous (cypselae strigose or glabrous) Balsamorhiza careyana
3 Heads usually borne singly, sometimes 2+; leaf margins usually crenate to dentate (at least near bases), sometimes entire, faces usually sparsely hirtellous to hispidulous, sometimes glabrous (usually gland-dotted, sometimes vernicose; cypselae glabrous) Balsamorhiza deltoidea
4 Leaf blades sometimes pinnately lobed (ultimate margins usually crenate-serrate, dentate, or serrate) > 5
4 Leaf blades usually 1–2-pinnatifid > 6
5 Leaf blades (earliest sometimes, later seldom, pinnately lobed): margins usually dentate to serrate, faces hirsutulous to scabrous (ray corollas yellow, not becoming red or chartaceous; cypselae glabrous) Balsamorhiza serrata
5 Leaf blades (rarely pinnately lobed): margins crenate-serrate, faces finely strigose to moderately scabrous (ray corollas yellow at anthesis, becoming red, drying pinkand chartaceous; cypselae strigose) Balsamorhiza rosea
6 Leaves grayish, silvery, or white, faces lanate-tomentose, sericeous, tomentose, or villous > 7
6 Leaves bright green to gray-green, faces glabrous or hirsute, hirtellous, hispid, hispidulous, pilose, piloso-hirtellous, scabrous, sericeous, strigillose, strigose, subvelutinous, or tomentose (sometimes gland-dotted as well) > 9
7 Leaves: faces densely sericeous; n California, s Oregon Balsamorhiza sericea
7 Leaves: faces lanate-tomentose, tomentose, or villous; n California, Oregon, Washington > 8
8 Leaf blades ovate to lanceolate, 10–45 × 3–7(–10) cm (1-pinnatifid, lobes ovate to lanceolate, 20–50 × 5–25 mm), margins plane; Oregon, Washington Balsamorhiza incana
8 Leaf blades lanceolate to linear-oblong, 10–20 × 3–6(–8) cm (1–2-pinnatifid, primary lobes lance-linear to oblong, 5–40 × 1–10 mm, margins revo-lute); n California Balsamorhiza lanata
9 Leaf blades 30–60 cm, 1-pinnatifid or nearly so; outer phyllaries usually much surpassing inner > 10
9 Leaf blades 6–40 cm, usually 1–2-pinnatifid; outer phyllaries seldom surpassing inner > 11
10 Leaves: faces strigillose to subvelutinous or tomentose (margins not cili-ate); ray laminae 20–30+ mm Balsamorhiza macrolepis
10 Leaves: faces scabrous or piloso-hirtellous to pilose (at least adaxial, mar- gins ciliate); ray laminae 35–50+ mm Balsamorhiza macrophylla
11 Leaf blades bright green, lance-elliptic to lanceolate, (6–)15–25(–40) × (3–)5–9+ cm (primary lobes lanceolate to oblanceolate, 10–45 × 2–15 mm),faces hispidulous to hirtellous Balsamorhiza hispidula
11 Leaf blades usually gray-green, narrowly to broadly lanceolate or ovate, (8–)20–30(–40) × 2–15 cm (primary lobes oblong or lanceolate to linear, 5–100 × 0.5–15 mm), faces hirsute, sericeous, or strigose Balsamorhiza hookeri

"broader" is not a number.

... more about "Balsamorhiza"
not tailed +, rounded +  and obtuse +
connate +  and distinct +
subequal +
scarious +
usually ovate +  and lanceolate +
usually deltate +  and lanceolate +
less corymbiform +  and racemiform +
indeterminate +  and determinate +
William A. Weber +
Hooker ex Nuttall +
bristlelike +
coroniform +
mostly truncate +  and cuneate +
compound +  and simple +
lobed;1-2-pinnatifid;lanceolate;lanceovate or oblong +
winged;ribbed;winged;ribbed +
tuberculate +  and rugose +
barbellulate +  and barbellate +
Balsamroot +
yellow +  and orange +
hairy +  and glabrous +
3-4-angled +  and prismatic +
fertile +  and bisexual +
fertile +  and bisexual +
w North America +
Greek balsamon, a fragrant gum, and rhiza, root +  and alluding to resiniferous rootstocks +
glabrous +, stipitate-glandular +, velutinous +, tomentose +, strigose +, sericeous +, scabrous +, puberulent +, pilose +, hispid +  and hirsute +
pistillate +, staminate +  and neuter +
winged +  and beaked +
dispersed +
indeterminate +
homogamous +  and heterogamous +
each +  and sessile +
1.1 cm11 mm <br />0.011 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
turbinate;hemispheric +
alternate +  and opposite +
deltate +
entire +, serrate +  and dentate +
crenate +  and entire +
2-carpellate +
persistent +
8 +  and 20 +
unequal +  and subequal +
Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., n. s. +
bearing subulate enations +, hairy +  and bristly +
flat;convex +
moore2003a +, ownbey1943a +  and weber1953a +
exalbuminous +
appendaged +  and truncate +
hirsutulous +  and glabrous +
papillate +
Undefined (tribe Undefined) subtribe Enceliinae +, Undefined (tribe Undefined) subtribe Engelmanniinae +, Undefined (tribe Undefined) subtribe Spilanthinae +, Undefined (tribe Undefined) subtribe Verbesininae +  and Undefined (tribe Undefined) subtribe Zinniinae +
Balsamorhiza +
Asteraceae (tribe Heliantheae) subtribe Ecliptinae +
cylindric +
cylindric +
shorter to longer than campanulate +
toothed +  and entire +
45 cm450 mm <br />0.45 m <br /> (100 cm1,000 mm <br />1 m <br />) +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (45 cm450 mm <br />0.45 m <br />) +
shrub +  and subshrub +