Asteraceae (tribe Heliantheae) subtribe Galinsoginae

Bentham & Hooker f.

Gen. Pl. 2: 198. 1873.

Treatment appears in FNA Volume 21. Treatment on page 176. Mentioned on page 6, 7, 135, 182.

Annuals, perennials, subshrubs, or shrubs, (2–) 10–150 [–300+] cm. Leaves mostly basal or mostly cauline; usually opposite (distal sometimes alternate); petiolate or sessile; blades (often 3-nerved or 5-nerved) mostly deltate, elliptic, lanceolate, lanceovate, linear, ovate, or rhombic, sometimes pinnately or palmately lobed, ultimate margins entire or ± toothed, faces glabrate, hispid, hispidulous, pilose, puberulent, scabrellous, scabrous, strigillose, or strigose, often glanddotted or stipitate-glandular. Heads radiate or discoid (sometimes ± disciform in Bebbia), borne singly or in loose to tight, corymbiform or cymiform arrays. Calyculi 0. Involucres campanulate, cylindric, hemispheric, or ± obpyramidal. Phyllaries persistent or falling, 6–30+ in 2–5+ series, usually distinct, elliptic, lanceolate, lance-linear, lanceovate, oblong, or ovate, subequal or unequal (outer longer or shorter). Receptacles flat, convex, or conic, paleate (paleae persistent or falling with cypselae, mostly oblong to lanceolate or linear, flat to conduplicate, herbaceous or scarious, often 2-lobed or 3-lobed or toothed). Ray-florets 0, or (3–) 6–21, pistillate, fertile; corollas yellow or whitish or pinkish [purplish]. Disc-florets 5–150+, bisexual, fertile (peripheral sometimes pistillate in Bebbia); corollas yellow to orange, or whitish, pinkish, or purplish, tubes shorter than throats, lobes 5, deltate to lance-deltate or lanceolate (± equal [outer larger, e.g., some plants of Tridax]); anther thecae pale or slightly darkened; stigmatic papillae in 2 lines. Cypselae ± compressed, often clavate, obconic, or ovoid, or obpyramidal and 3-angled, 4-angled, or 5-angled, glabrous or sparsely to densely piloso-sericeous, sericeous, strigillose, or strigose; pappi 0, or persistent, of 1–10+ subulate to acerose scales, or 5–20 ± spatulate, entire to erose, fimbriate, or laciniate, sometimes aristate, scales in 1 series, or 15–25+ [–40], plumose, setiform scales (or flattened bristles) in 1 series.

Distribution

Subtropical, tropical, and warm-temperate New World

Discussion

Genera 15, species 103 (4 genera, 8 species in the flora).

All genera of Galinsoginae are centered in tropical and subtropical to warm-temperate North America and South America; relatively few extend into cool-temperate areas; fewer still are adventive in the Old World.

Selected References

None.

Key

1 Phyllaries 10–20 in ± 2 series (outer 4 broadly lanceolate, foliaceous, notably larger than inner) Tetragonotheca
1 Phyllaries 6–30+ in 2–5 series (subequal or unequal, outer smaller than inner). > 2
2 Annuals (ray cypselae often each shed together with subtending phyllary and 2 adjacent paleae) Galinsoga
2 Perennials, subshrubs, or shrubs (cypselae shed separate from paleae) > 3
3 Subshrubs or shrubs, 50–140 cm (often forming dense, rounded masses) Bebbia
3 Perennials, 10–40 cm (stems procumbent to ascending) Tridax
not tailed +, rounded +  and obtuse +
darkened +  and pale +
connate +  and distinct +
subequal +
scarious +
usually ovate +  and lanceolate +
usually deltate +  and lanceolate +
spiciform +, racemiform +, paniculiform +  and corymbiform +
indeterminate +  and determinate +
Theodore M. Barkley† +, Luc Brouillet +  and John L. Strother +
Bentham & Hooker f. +
decurrent +
compound +  and simple +
lobed;rhombic;ovate;rhombic;ovate;linear;lanceovate;lanceolate;elliptic;deltate +
winged;ribbed;winged;ribbed +
tuberculate +  and rugose +
barbellulate +  and barbellate +
yellow +  and orange or whitish pinkish or purplish +
glabrous or +  and sparsely densely piloso-sericeous sericeous strigillose or strigose +
5-angled +, 4-angled +, 3-angled +, obpyramidal +, ovoid +, obconic +, clavate +  and compressed +
fertile +  and bisexual +
fertile +  and bisexual +
Subtropical +, tropical +  and and warm-temperate New World +
stipitate-glandular +, strigose +, strigillose +, scabrous +, puberulent +, pilose +, hispidulous +, hispid +  and glabrate +
scabrellous +
pistillate +, staminate +  and neuter +
winged +  and beaked +
dispersed +
cymiform +, corymbiform +, discoid +  and radiate +
in loose to tight +  and singly +
indeterminate +
homogamous +  and heterogamous +
each +  and sessile +
obpyramidal;hemispheric;obpyramidal;hemispheric;cylindric;campanulate +
sessile +  and petiolate +
cauline +  and basal +
deltate +  and lance-deltate or lanceolate +
dentate to pinnatifid or palmatifid +  and entire +
2-carpellate +
entire +  and erose +
persistent +
aristate +, laciniate +, fimbriate +  and spatulate +
6 +  and 30 +
unequal +  and subequal +
bearing subulate enations +, hairy +  and bristly +
conic;convex;conic;convex;flat +
5 +  and 20 +
setiform +, plumose +, subulate +  and acerose +
exalbuminous +
prostrate +  and ascending +
appendaged +  and truncate +
hirsutulous +  and glabrous +
papillate +
Compositae +
Asteraceae (tribe Heliantheae) subtribe Galinsoginae +
Asteraceae tribe Heliantheae +
subtribe +
toothed +  and entire +
perennial +  and annual +
shrub +  and subshrub +