Asteraceae (tribe Heliantheae) subtribe Chaenactidinae

Rydberg in N. L. Britton et al.

in N. L. Britton et al., N. Amer. Fl. 34: 63. 1914.

Synonyms: Undefined (tribe Undefined) subtribe Bahiinae Rydberg Undefined (tribe Undefined) subtribe Palafoxiinae Rydberg
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 21. Treatment on page 364. Mentioned on page 5, 253.

Annuals, biennials, perennials, subshrubs, shrubs, or treelets, 1–80 (–300) cm (some rhizomatous or with woody caudices). Leaves basal, basal and cauline, or cauline; opposite or alternate; usually petiolate, sometimes sessile; blades mostly cordate, deltate, elliptic, lanceolate, linear, oblanceolate, oblong, obovate, ovate, rhombic, or spatulate, often 1–2-pinnately or ternately lobed (lobes mostly filiform to linear, lanceolate, or oblanceolate), ultimate margins entire or toothed, faces ± lanate to woolly, or hispidulous to scabrellous or strigose, sometimes glabrescent, sometimes stipitate-glandular, rarely glabrous, often glanddotted. Heads usually radiate, sometimes discoid, rarely radiant (Chaenactis spp.), borne singly, or in clusters, or in corymbiform, cymiform, or paniculiform arrays. Calyculi usually 0 (sometimes 1–3 bractlets in Schkuhria). Involucres campanulate to narrowly cylindric or obconic, or hemispheric to rotate. Phyllaries usually persistent, 4–60+ in 1–4+ series (usually erect at flowering, usually reflexed in fruit, usually distinct, basally coherent in some Arnica spp., mostly lanceovate, linear, or ovate, unequal to subequal, mostly herbaceous to membranous, outer foliaceous in Venegasia). Receptacles conic, flat, or hemispheric, often knobby or pitted (sometimes hairy or glanddotted), usually epaleate (paleae sometimes subulate scales in Chaenactis; in Bartlettia, linear, membranous, hairy scales, each appressed to and shed with an associated cypsela may interpreted as paleae). Ray-florets 0 (corollas of peripheral florets sometimes notably larger than those of the inner, then zygomorphic, showy, and somewhat raylike, e.g., Chaenactis spp.) or (1–) 4–21 (–60+), pistillate, fertile; corollas yellow, orange, red, purplish, or whitish (persistent, marcescent in Arnica dealbata). Disc-florets 4–200+, usually bisexual, fertile (functionally staminate in Arnica dealbata); corollas yellow, orange, purplish, or whitish, usually hairy and/or glanddotted or stipitate-glandular, tubes shorter than to longer than cylindric or campanulate to funnelform throats, lobes 5, deltate to linear; anther thecae pale; stigmatic papillae in 2 lines. Cypselae mostly obpyramidal and 4–5-angled, sometimes clavate, columnar, cylindric, or fusiform, sometimes compressed and ± linear (e.g., Chaenactis, Hulsea) or obcompressed (e.g., Arnica dealbata, Bartlettia; lengths usually 3+ times diams.), faces usually hairy and/or glanddotted; pappi falling, fragile, or persistent, usually of 6–80 distinct or basally connate bristles, or of 4–20 distinct (or basally connate) scales, all, some, or none aristate, sometimes pappi none.


North America, Mexico, Central America, South America (Bahia)


Genera 25, species 129 (19 genera, 83 species in the flora).

The circumscription of Chaenactidinae used here (that of H. Robinson 1981) contrasts sharply with that of B. G. Baldwin (Baldwin and B. L. Wessa 2000; Baldwin et al. 2002). Baldwin included Chaenactis, Dimeresia (here segregated in Dimeresiinae), and Orochaenactis in his Chaenactidinae (as sole subtribe in his Chaenactideae) and placed other genera of Chaenactidinae in the sense of Robinson as follows: Amauriopsis, Bahia, Bartlettia, Chamaechaenactis, Florestina, Hymenothrix, Palafoxia, Peucephyllum, Picradeniopsis, Platyschkuhria, Psathyrotopsis, and Schkuhria in Bahiinae (in Bahieae); Arnica in Arnicinae (in Madieae); Hulsea in Hulseinae (in Madieae); Syntrichopappus in Baeriinae (in Madieae); Venegasia in Venegasiinae (in Madieae); and Jamesianthus in Pectidinae (in Tageteae).

Selected References



1 Pappi wholly or partially of bristles (pappi 0 and ray corollas whitish with red veins in Syntrichopappus lemmonii) > 2
1 Pappi none or wholly of scales (all, some, or no scales aristate) > 7
2 Leaves all or mostly opposite > 3
2 Leaves mostly alternate (sometimes mostly basal) > 4
3 Phyllaries 8–23 in (1–)2 series (subequal); pappi persistent, of 10–50 bristles Arnica
3 Phyllaries 14–18+ in ± 3 series (unequal); pappi fragile, of 6–8+ bristles Jamesianthus
4 Shrubs or treelets; leaf blades linear-filiform Peucephyllum
4 Annuals or perennials; leaf blades mostly deltate, elliptic, or rhombic > 5
5 Cypselae obcompressed (each shed together with a subtending, linear, membranous scale, margins ciliate) Bartlettia
5 Cypselae clavate, fusiform, obconic, or obpyramidal (margins not ciliate) > 6
6 Ray florets 5–8; pappi 0, or ± fragile (falling in whole of fragmented rings), of 25–40 basally connate or coherent bristles in 1–2 series Syntrichopappus
6 Ray florets 0; pappi persistent, of 70–90 distinct, unequal bristles in 2–3series Psathyrotopsis
7 Leaves all or mostly cauline, usually all or mostly opposite (distal sometimes, usually in Bahia, alternate) > 8
7 Leaves all or mostly basal, or mostly cauline, mostly alternate (proximal sometimes opposite) > 11
8 Leaves woolly; rays 5–12 (corollas persistent, marcescent); disc florets usually functionally staminate; cypselae obovoid or plumply fusiform, smooth or ca. 20-ribbed Arnica
8 Leaves usually ± hairy (not woolly, hairs white, straight, often bulbous, conic, or fusiform, 0.1–0.8 mm), sometimes glabrous, sometimes stipitate-glandular, usually gland-dotted; rays 0, or 1–15 (corollas withering, not marcescent); disc florets bisexual, fertile; cypselae obpyramidal, mostly 4-angled > 9
9 Phyllaries 4–9(–12, margins often purplish or yellowish) Schkuhria
9 Phyllaries 6–18+ (margins rarely purplish, not yellowish) > 10
10 Annuals, biennials, or perennials, 10–80+ cm; leaves all or mostly opposite (if perennials, blades lanceolate to oblong, 2–20+ mm wide), or all ormostly alternate Bahia
10 Perennials, 3–20+ cm; leaves all or mostly opposite (blades or lobes lanceolate to lance-linear, mostly 1–8 mm wide) Picradeniopsis
11 Phyllaries 20–40+ in 3–4+ series (unequal, outer spreading or reflexed at flowering, rotund to broadly ovate, foliaceous) Venegasia
11 Phyllaries mostly 4–21(–60+ in Hulsea; subequal to unequal, all ± erect at flowering, mostly lanceolate, linear, oblanceolate, obovate, or spatulate, not foliaceous) > 12
12 Disc corolla lobes lance-linear, lance-oblong, or linear (lengths mostly 2+ times widths) > 13
12 Disc corolla lobes mostly deltate, lance-deltate, lanceolate, or ovate (lengths mostly 1–2 times widths, sometimes longer in zygomorphic corollas of some Chaenactis spp.) > 15
13 Pappus scales 12–18 Hymenothrix
13 Pappus scales 4–12 > 14
14 Leaf blades broadly lanceolate to linear (not lobed); corollas usually pinkish or purplish, sometimes whitish; cypselae densely to sparsely hairy (hairs straight) Palafoxia
14 Leaf blades (at least mid-cauline) 3- or 5-lobed or -foliolate (blades or leaflets broadly to narrowly oblong to ovate); corollas whitish; cypselae sparsely hairy (hairs curled) Florestina
15 Leaves sparsely to densely hirtellous, scabrellous, or strigose (hairs white, straight, often conic or fusiform, 0.1–0.8 mm), sometimes glabrescent, sometimes stipitate-glandular, usually gland-dotted; cypselae obpyramidal, 4-angled > 16
15 Leaves mostly sparsely lanate, tomentose, or woolly (hairs crisped, tangled or matted, mostly 0.8+ mm), sometimes glabrescent, or finely granular-pubescent (hairs bulbous, less than 0.2 mm), or glabrous, sometimes stipitate-glandular or gland-dotted; cypselae clavate, ± cylindric, or obconic, often compressed and ± linear, obscurely, if at all, 4-angled (sometimes obscurely 8–20-angled) > 18
16 Leaves mostly cauline, blades deltate, oblong, or ovate overall, usually 1–2-ternately lobed Amauriopsis
16 Leaves mostly basal or basal and cauline, blades cordate, elliptic, lanceolate, ovate or rounded > 17
17 Plants mostly 10–50+ cm; leaf blades mostly lanceolate, sometimes ± ovate; heads borne singly or in corymbiform to paniculiformarrays; rays 6–12 Platyschkuhria
17 Plants 2–7(–9) cm (10–20+ cm across); leaf blades cordate, elliptic,ovate, or rounded; heads borne singly; rays 0 Chamaechaenactis
18 Ray florets 9–60+ Hulsea
18 Ray florets 0 (corollas of peripheral florets sometimes zygomorphic and larger than inner, heads radiant) > 19
19 Heads borne singly or in ± cymiform arrays; disc florets 8–70+ Chaenactis
19 Heads borne singly or (2–5) in clusters (at stem tips); disc florets 4–9 Orochaenactis
not tailed +, rounded +  and obtuse +
connate +  and distinct +
subequal +
scarious +
usually ovate +  and lanceolate +
usually deltate +  and lanceolate +
paniculiform +, cymiform +  and corymbiform +
indeterminate +  and determinate +
Theodore M. Barkley† +, Luc Brouillet +  and John L. Strother +
Rydberg in N. L. Britton et al. +
decurrent +
compound +  and simple +
lobed;spatulate;rhombic;spatulate;rhombic;ovate;obovate;oblong;oblanceolate;linear;lanceolate;elliptic;deltate;cordate +
winged;ribbed;winged;ribbed +
tuberculate +  and rugose +
barbellulate +  and barbellate +
connate +  and distinct +
whitish +, purplish +, orange +, yellow +  and red +
stipitate-glandular +  and hairy +
obcompressed +, linear +, compressed +, fusiform +, cylindric +, columnar +, clavate +, 4-5-angled +  and obpyramidal +
fertile +  and bisexual +
fertile +  and bisexual +
North America +, Mexico +, Central America +  and South America (Bahia) +
hairy +, glabrous +, stipitate-glandular +, glabrescent +, strigose +, less lanate +  and woolly or hispidulous +
scabrellous +
pistillate +, staminate +  and neuter +
winged +  and beaked +
dispersed +
campanulate +  and cylindric +
singly +  and radiant +
indeterminate +
homogamous +  and heterogamous +
each +  and sessile +
campanulate;narrowly cylindric or obconic or hemispheric +
sessile +  and petiolate +
alternate +  and opposite +
cauline +  and basal +
deltate +  and linear +
dentate to pinnatifid or palmatifid +  and entire +
2-carpellate +
persistent +
aristate +
4 +  and 60 +
in N. L. Britton et al., N. Amer. Fl. +
bearing subulate enations +, hairy +  and bristly +
knobby;hemispheric;flat;hemispheric;flat;conic +
distinct +
4 +  and 20 +
exalbuminous +
prostrate +  and ascending +
appendaged +  and truncate +
hirsutulous +  and glabrous +
papillate +
Undefined (tribe Undefined) subtribe Bahiinae +  and Undefined (tribe Undefined) subtribe Palafoxiinae +
Asteraceae (tribe Heliantheae) subtribe Chaenactidinae +
Asteraceae tribe Heliantheae +
subtribe +
campanulate +  and cylindric +
80 cm800 mm <br />0.8 m <br /> (300 cm3,000 mm <br />3 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (80 cm800 mm <br />0.8 m <br />) +
toothed +  and entire +
80 cm800 mm <br />0.8 m <br /> (300 cm3,000 mm <br />3 m <br />) +
perennial +, biennial +  and annual +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (80 cm800 mm <br />0.8 m <br />) +
shrub +  and subshrub +