Arceuthobium douglasii

Engelmann in J. T. Rothrock

Rep. U.S. Geogr. Surv., Wheeler, 253. 1879.

Common names: Douglas-fir dwarf mistletoe
Synonyms: Razoumofskya douglasii (Engelmann) Kuntze
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 12. Treatment on page 426. Mentioned on page 425, 428.

Plants forming systemic witches brooms. Stems yellowish green, olive green, orangebrown, or maroon; secondary branching fanlike, branches 2 (–8) cm, third internode 2–6 × 1 mm, dominant shoot 1–1.5 mm diam. at base. Staminate pedicels present. Staminate flowers radially symmetric, subglobose in bud, 2.3 mm diam.; petals (2–) 3 (–4), reddish or purple. Berries proximally olive green to purplish, distally yellow, brownish orange, or maroon, 3.5–4.5 × 1.5–2 mm. Seeds ellipsoid, 2.4 × 1.1 mm, endosperm bright green. 2n = 28.


Phenology: Flowering (Mar–)Apr–May(–Jun); fruiting Aug–Sep(–Oct).
Habitat: Coniferous forests with Douglas fir.
Elevation: 300–3300 m.

Distribution

V12 103-distribution-map.jpg

B.C., Ariz., Calif., Colo., Idaho, Mont., Nev., N.Mex., Oreg., Tex., Utah, Wash., Wyo., Mexico (Chihuahua), Mexico (Coahuila), Mexico (Durango), Mexico (Nuevo León)

Discussion

Staminate meiosis occurs in September, pistillate in April, with fruits maturing 17 to 18 months after pollination; seeds germinate in March.

Arceuthobium douglasii has the widest latitudinal distribution of any North American dwarf mistletoe. Its principal host is Pseudotsuga menziesii, but it is occasionally found also on Abies amabilis, A. concolor, A. grandis, A. lasiocarpa, Picea engelmannii, and P. pungens. Plants of Arceuthobium douglasii induce massive systemic witches’ brooms that severely affect host growth and may eventually result in host mortality. Section Minuta Hawksworth & Wiens was erected to accommodate the two diminutive North American dwarf mistletoes, A. douglasii and A. pusillum. Isozymes and later DNA analyses showed that these two species are not closely related, thus their small shoot size and spring flowering evolved in parallel.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Arceuthobium douglasii"
Daniel L. Nickrent +
Engelmann in J. T. Rothrock +
proximally olive green +  and purplish distally yellow brownish orange or maroon +
0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br /> (0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br />) +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (?) +  and 0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (?) +
scale-like +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br />) +
Douglas-fir dwarf mistletoe +
spikelike +
B.C. +, Ariz. +, Calif. +, Colo. +, Idaho +, Mont. +, Nev. +, N.Mex. +, Oreg. +, Tex. +, Utah +, Wash. +, Wyo. +, Mexico (Chihuahua) +, Mexico (Coahuila) +, Mexico (Durango) +  and Mexico (Nuevo León) +
300–3300 m. +
globose +  and pyriform +
2.3 cm23 mm <br />0.023 m <br /> (?) +
Coniferous forests with Douglas fir. +
terminal +  and axillary +
bisexual +  and unisexual +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (?) +
connate +
scale-like +
pinnate +  and entire +
articulated +
connate +  and distinct +
Flowering (Mar–)Apr–May(–Jun) +  and fruiting Aug–Sep(–Oct). +
2[-3]-carpellate +
Rep. U.S. Geogr. Surv., Wheeler, +
mucilaginous +
2.4 cm24 mm <br />0.024 m <br /> (?) +
ellipsoid +
1.1 cm11 mm <br />0.011 m <br /> (?) +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br />) +
3 (?) +  and 4 (?) +
maroon;orangebrown;maroon;orangebrown;olive green;yellowish green +
pendulous +  and erect +
fanlike +
undifferentiated +
Razoumofskya douglasii +
Arceuthobium douglasii +
Arceuthobium +
species +
spikelike +
mucilaginous +
evergreen +  and perennial +