Rhodora 42: 522. 1940.
Trees to 80m; trunk to 2.2m diam.; crown spirelike. Bark grayish brown, in age becoming thick and deeply furrowed (furrows and ridges about same width) and reddish-brown (especially reddish when plates flake off). Branches diverging from trunk at right angles, stiff; twigs reddish-brown, finely pubescent for several years. Buds hidden by leaves, tan, ovoid, small, not resinous, apex rounded; basal scales short, broad, equilaterally triangular, pubescent centrally, not resinous, margins entire to crenate, apex sharp-pointed. Leaves 1–3 (–3.5) cm × 1.5–2mm, 1-ranked, flexible, proximal portion often appressed to twig for 2–3mm (best seen on abaxial surface of twig), distal portion divergent; cross-section flat, with prominent raised midrib abaxially, with or without groove adaxially, or cross-section 4-sided on fertile branches; odor pungent, faintly turpentinelike; abaxial surface with 2–4 glaucous bands, each band with (4–) 6–7 stomatal rows; adaxial surface bluish green, with 0–2 glaucous bands, each band with 0–7 stomatal rows at midleaf; apex rounded to notched; leaves on fertile branches 4-sided with 4 bands of stomates below; resin canals small, near margins and abaxial epidermal layer. Pollen cones at pollination ± purple, ± red, or reddish-brown. Seed-cones oblong-cylindric, 10–15 × 5–6.5cm, green, red, or purple, overlaid with green bracts, at maturity brown (bracts light-colored and scales dark), sessile, apex rounded; scales ca. 2.5 × 3cm, pubescent; bracts exserted and reflexed over scales. Seeds 12 × 6mm, body reddish-brown; wing slightly longer than body, light-brown to straw; cotyledons (4–) 5–6 (–7). 2n =24.
Habitat: Mixed coniferous forests
Calif., Oreg., Wash.
See discussion under Abies magnifica.
"thick" is not a number.